TPMIPv6 v2 eng

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TP
Configuring Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)


Objectives:

  • Implement an environment where the concepts related to Mobile IPv6 could be observed.
  • Verify and analyze the operation of RFC 6275 (Mobility Support in IPv6) and RFC 3963 (Network Mobility Basic Support Protocol).

This practical is scored. The following table must be signed by your instructors all along the lab practice :

Scoring table
Step Description Comments Instructor's signature
Step 2a : Local network Does MN ping HA ?
Step 2b : Backbone network Does MN ping CN ?
Step 3 : Homelink network Does MN ping the Home Agent address ?
Step 4 : Tunnel establishment Does MN associate with HA ?


Attention.png Important: It is mandatory to read the lab subject and its related theory before arriving to the lab room.


Sommaire

Lab Room description

Each lab room (B27 and B30) is composed of a number of benches, each one of these can be connected to a central hub in order to interact with other benches or to find its way to Internet. Lab room configurations are depicted below:

Plan.salles.TP.v2.png

Question.jpg
Write down the lab room number (27 or 30) as well as the bench number. They will be required for the addressing plan. We will keep the following convention:
TP: Lab room number  --->
X : Your team number --->
Y : Neighbor number  --->




Equipment identification

  • 5 RJ45 cables
  • 1 RJ45 straight through cable (dark blue)
  • 2 PCs with 3 Ethernet ports (One on the motherboard and two ethernet cards).
  • 1 Cisco switch (3560 family)
  • 1 Cisco router (1800 family)
  • Two console cables (light blue). PC on the left side will be connected to the Switch console port while the PC on the right side is connected to the Router console port.

Arriere.png

Notice:

  • Cable connectors can be deteriorated because of constant use. You should always verify the LED at every connection side..
  • Switches can detect the type of cabling. Thus, the type of cable is not important. Routers do not have this type of identification.
  • The ethernet cable attached to the motherboard ethernet port SHOULD NOT be disconnected. We will only use the other two ethernet cards.

Operating System Information

In order to configure and use MIPv6, we need a modified distribution of the operating system and some specific tools. The Linux kernel has MIPv6 feature since version 2.6.19 but it must be specifically enabled. In order to do this, it is necessary to:

  • Compile the Linux kernel with MIPv6 support.
  • Install userland tools for MIPv6, provided by the UMIP project.
  • Configure each entity of your platform so that it behaves as a Home Agent, Mobile Router, Mobile Node, or Correspondent Node.

A MIPv6-ready system has been prepared and installed on every PC. You will find a basic configuration that you will need to adapt.

System booting

Red arrow.png If it has not been done yet, load the Clonezilla image for this lab, « Debian 7 Réseau ».

Red arrow.png Boot your machine.

Red arrow.png After booting, login as user with the password pass4user

Useful commands

During the practical, we will ask you to use several commands on linux either to set the appropriate network configurations or for the purpose of testing. Here are the most important:

  • ip: swiss-knife of the network configuration on linux, this command is able to configure either interfaces, addresses, routes, or even more advanced features
    • ip link: for link-layer related operations (like setting the interface up or down)
    • ip address: to show and manipulate IP addresses; roughly equivalent to former ifconfig command
    • ip route: to show and manipulate IP routes; roughly equivalent to former route command
    • ip neighbour: for neighbour cache (L2/L3 association) operations
  • sysctl: allows to fine-tune your Linux kernel networking stack or just see current configuration
  • ping6: well-known command used to send ICMPv6 ECHOs to a given host
  • traceroute6: permits to discover the route to a host or a network
  • wireshark: graphical application aimed to capture frames transiting on a network interface, have a command line equivalent named tshark
  • telnet or nc: commands to connect to a host on a given port

Feel free to use these commands even if it is not explicitly mentioned to do so (especially debugging commands such as wireshark, ping6, or traceroute6). They are very powerful and please look at their manuals for detailed instructions. For example, for the ping6 command manual, type:

# man ping6

Step 1: MIPv6 Infrastructure

Objectives:

  • Identify the components of a MIPv6 basic infrastructure.
  • Get familiar with the function of every lab component.
  • Define the addressing plan of your own Mobile IPv6 network.


Description: A Mobile IPv6 network is basically composed of a Mobile Node (MN), a Home Agent (HA), an Access Router (AR), and a Correspondent Node (CN) as shown in the figure below.


Scenario TP MIPv6 v2.2.png


The next figure below illustrates the way these elements and the topology shown in the figure above will be deployed in a lab environment as well as their general addressing scheme.


TPMIPv6 init v1.png


Cabling the network

Red arrow.png Do the following connections:

  • Mobile Node (PC on the left side):
    • Connected to the switch console port from its serial port (light blue cable).
    • Connected to the switch port 1 from its interface eth0.
  • Home Agent (PC on the right side):
    • Connected to the router console port from the serial port (light blue cable).
    • Connected to the switch port 2 from its interface eth0.
    • Connected to the switch port 8 from its interface eth1 (for traffic monitoring).
  • Access Router (Cisco router):
    • Connected to the lab room hub from its interface Fe0/1.
    • Connected to the switch port 3 from its port Fe0/0.

Addressing plan description:

As described in the figure above, we will use the following addressing plan :

  • Backbone: 2001:660:7301:<TP>00::/64
    • Access Router X (Fe0/1): 2001:660:7301:<TP>00::<X>
    • Correspondent Node: 2001:660:7301:<TP>00::FE
  • Local network X: 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::/64
    • Access Router X (Fe0/0): 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::1
    • Home Agent X: 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::2
    • Mobile Node X: 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1:<EUI-64>
  • Home Link X: 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>8::/64
    • Home Agent Address X: 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>8::1
    • Home Address MN X: 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>8::2


Question.jpg
Write down the IPv6 addresses corresponding to each of the following elements:
  • Backbone:
    • Access Router X (Fe0/1):
    • Correspondent Node:
  • Local network X:
    • Access Router X (Fe0/0):
    • Home Agent X:
    • Mobile Node X:
  • Home Link X:
    • Home Agent Address X:
    • Home Address MN X:




Step 2: Initial configuration

Objectives:

  • Setup a basic IPv6 network assuring end-to-end connectivity.
  • Put in practice the IPv6 addressing techniques applied to a MIPv6 context.
  • Put in practice some routing principles.


Description: This section will configure a functional end-to-end network where a MIPv6 network could be deployed and tested. Routing and addressing principles are required to conclude and understand this step.


Setting up the local network

We first setup the local (bench) network.

Switch configuration

Red arrow.png Open a terminal to the switch console from the MN with Applications → TP Réseaux → Console Série

A Command Line Interface (CLI) to configure and manage the switch will appear (it uses minicom). In case a password is asked to run the terminal, it is pass4root. If some questions are proposed, ignore them by using Ctrl ^ C.

Red arrow.png Type the following command and verify if the output is the same as the one that is shown below:

Switch> enable
Switch# show startup-config
startup-config is not present
Switch#

Red arrow.png If the output is different from the one above, follow the instructions at the end of this document in order to erase any previous configuration.

Red arrow.png Type the following commands in order to configure a monitoring interface. In this case, all traffic traversing VLAN 1 will be forwarded to port FastEthernet 0/8, on the cisco switch, for monitoring. This port will be connected to the eth1 interface of the Home Agent and that will allow us to monitor the traffic using wireshark.

Switch>
Switch#
Switch# configure terminal
Switch(config)#
Switch(config)# monitor session 1 source vlan 1
Switch(config)# monitor session 1 destination interface fast 0/8
Switch(config)#
Switch(config)# interface range fast 0/1 - 8
Switch(config-if-range)# spanning-tree portfast
Switch(config-if-range)# end
Switch#
Switch# write
Switch#


Home Agent basic configuration

We are going to configure statically the Home Agent address. This step is preliminary for the mobility setup.

First, we need to modify the behavior of the Linux IPv6 stack.

Red arrow.png Type the following sysctls from a terminal window in the Home Agent:

# sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.eth0.autoconf=0
# sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.eth0.accept_ra=0
# sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.eth1.disable_ipv6=1
Question.jpg
What is the purpose of these commands?




Then we statically assign an IPv6 to the eth0 interface.

Red arrow.png Type the following commands in order to configure an IPv6 address on the eth0 interface :

# ip link set eth0 down
# ip link set eth0 up
# ip -6 address add 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::2/64 dev eth0
# ip -6 route add default via 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::1

Mobile Node basic configuration

First, make sure that eth1 won't autoconfigure by error.

Red arrow.png Put eth1 down:

# ip link set eth1 down

By default, the Mobile Node should already have the right configuration, lets ensure that it does.

Red arrow.png In case the Mobile Node's network interface is not already up, set it up:

# ip link set eth0 up

Red arrow.png Check the sysctls on the Mobile Node:

# sysctl -a | grep net.ipv6.conf.all

Red arrow.png Ensure that the following sysctls are correctly set:

net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 0
net.ipv6.conf.all.autoconf = 1
net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_ra = 1
Question.jpg
What do these settings mean? Why do we need them?




Router configuration

The Access Router will be in charge of sending Router Advertisements on each local network.

Red arrow.png Open a terminal to the router console from the HA with Applications → TP Réseaux → Console Série

A Command Line Interface (CLI) to configure and manage the router will appear. If some questions are proposed, ignore them by using Ctrl ^ C.

Red arrow.png Type the following command and verify if the output is the same as the one that is shown below:

Router > enable
Router# show startup-config
startup-config is not present
Router#

Red arrow.png If the output is different from the one above, follow the instructions at the end of this document to erase any previous configuration

Red arrow.png Configure the router's interface linked on the lab bench network (hint: 2592000s is 30 days, 604800s is 7 days)

Routeur# configure terminal
Router(config)# interface FastEthernet0/0
Router(config-if)# no shutdown
Router(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::1/64
Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable
Router(config-if)# ipv6 nd prefix 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::/64 2592000 604800
Router(config-if)# ipv6 nd ra interval 30
Router(config-if)# exit
Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
Router(config)# end
Router# write
Router#

Configuration tests

Now, we can check that your local network is correctly set up.

On the Mobile Node:

Red arrow.png Check that your interfaces are correctly configured:

# ip -6 address show eth0
Question.jpg
Write down the Mobile Node eth0 global IPv6 address




Question.jpg
Write down the Mobile Node eth0 local IPv6 address




Stylo.png
What is the difference between these two addresses? What is the function of each one?




Stylo.png
How is the global IPv6 address generated in this case? What is the name of the algorithm used?





Red arrow.png Start a live capture with Wireshark on the eth0 interface by using Applications → TP Réseaux → Capture réseau (wireshark)

Question.jpg
Using the output filter ipv6: What is the Router Advertisement emission frequency as verified from wireshark?




Question.jpg
Take a look at one of the Router Advertisements. Check the ICMPv6 informational message option « Prefix information » and write the meaning and the value of the following fields contained in there:
  • Type:
  • Prefix Length:
  • Valid lifetime:
  • Prefix:





Question.jpg
Complete the table below by pinging the specified destinations from the Access Router and the Mobile Node:


Source Destination Result Explanation
MNX HAX [eth0]
MNX ARX [Fe0/0]
MNX ARX [Fe0/1]
MNX ARY [Fe0/1]
ARX ARY [Fe0/1]
ARX ARY [Fe0/0]
MNX CN

Red arrow.png Ask your instructors for approval before continuing

Approved: Not approved:

Backbone configuration

Once we have a functioning local network, we can setup RIP on the router to announce our network. Type the following commands in the router's configuration.

Red arrow.png Enable routing and the RIP protocol on the router:

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# ipv6 router rip cisco
Router(config-router)# redistribute connected
Router(config-router)# end
Router# write
Router#

Red arrow.png Configure the router's interface linked to the backbone network:

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# interface FastEthernet0/1
Router(config-if)# no shutdown
Router(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:660:7301:<TP>00::<X>/64
Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable
Router(config-if)# ipv6 rip cisco enable
Router(config-if)# end
Router# write
Router#


Stylo.png
How does RIP work? What is the advantage of using dynamic routing in this lab?




Global connectivity testing

Red arrow.png Try again to ping the following destinations from the Access Router and the Mobile Node:

Question.jpg
Complete the table below by pinging the specified destinations from the Access Router and the Mobile Node:


Source Destination Result Explanation
MNX HAX [eth0]
MNX ARX [Fe0/0]
MNX ARX [Fe0/1]
MNX ARY [Fe0/1]
ARX ARY [Fe0/1]
ARX ARY [Fe0/0]
MNX CN


Question.jpg
What differences do you see ? How do you explain that ?





To prove usefulness of the mobility concept, we can check the behavior of your Mobile Node when it moves to another bench. To do that, we will first open a ssh connection from the Mobile Node to the Correspondent Node, from your bench. Note that a TCP session can remain ESTABLISHED during a long period, even after a physical blackout.

Stylo.png
What will be the source address of your TCP packets ?




Red arrow.png Launch a ssh connection from the Mobile Node to the Correspondent Node.

# ssh user@2001:660:7301:<TP>E1::2

Red arrow.png Unplug your Mobile Node and plug it into the switch of another bench.


TPMIPv6 mobility v1.png


Red arrow.png Try to enter some command in the ssh session while connected to the other bench. Then come back and reconnect the Mobile Node to your bench. Do not stop or re-launch your ssh session.

Question.jpg
What happened ? How do you explain this behavior ?




Red arrow.png Close your ssh connection:

# exit # in the terminal where you launched your ssh connection

Red arrow.png Ask your instructors for approval before continuing

Approved: Not approved:

Step 3: MIPv6 configuration

Objectives:

  • Identify the elements that need to be configured in order to activate a MIPv6 architecture.
  • Visualize the impact of MIPv6 on the IPv6 default operation


Description: During this step, the students will get familiar with the commands and functions that will permit the activation of a Mobile IPv6 architecture. At the end of this step, a Mobile Node (configured with a permanent Home Address) should be reachable at any time and from any location by any Correspondent Node knowing the MN home address.

Stylo.png
What is the difference between a Home Address (HoA) and a Care-of-Address (CoA)?





Stylo.png
What is the function of a Home Agent in a Mobile IPv6 context?




Home Agent configuration

First, we need to make the Home Agent behave as a router.

Red arrow.png Type the following sysctl:

# sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1
Question.jpg
What is the purpose of the last command?




In this lab, the Home Network will be assigned to a dummy interface. This is a virtual interface on which some traffic will transit, but without any physical device.

Red arrow.png Define an address for the dummy0 interface:

# ip link set dummy0 up
# ip -6 address add 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>8::1/64 dev dummy0


Stylo.png
Referring to the addressing plan, what is this address ?




Stylo.png
What could be the purpose of configuring a dummy interface compared to a real one? Imagine that we could have configured eth1 as the Home Link.




Then we have to start radvd. Radvd is a daemon that allows sending Router Advertisements on a specified network interface.

Red arrow.png Edit (with e.g. gedit) ha.radvd.conf (located in /home/user/TPs/TP_MIPv6) and replace <TP> and <X> by your numbers.

Red arrow.png Start radvd with the appropriate configuration:

# radvd -C ~user/TPs/TP_MIPv6/ha.radvd.conf
Question.jpg
According to the configuration file and eventual wireshark captures, on which interface radvd sends its RAs ?




Question.jpg
Inspect the content of those RAs, which parts of the message are specific to MIPv6 ?





Now this is time to set up the actual mobility daemon : mip6d.

Red arrow.png Edit ha.mip6d.conf and replace <TP> and <X> by your numbers.

Red arrow.png Start mip6d with the appropriate configuration:

# mip6d -c ~user/TPs/TP_MIPv6/ha.mip6d.conf

Beware this is a lower case -c, as opposed to radvd which takes an upper case -C.

On the standard output, you will see mip6d's logs.


Notes:

  • Logs will be displayed on the standard output.
  • You can administer mip6d using telnet on port 7777 :
# telnet localhost 7777

Allowed commands are help, bc, date, fancy, hal, nonce, pl, prompt, quit, thread, verbose. Type help for more information.

Access Router configuration

We need an additional route on the Access Router.

Red arrow.png Return to the console terminal connected on the router and type:

Router# configure terminal
Router(config)# ipv6 route 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>8::/64 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>1::2
Router(config)#
Router(config)# ipv6 router rip cisco
Router(config-router)# redistribute static
Router(config-router)# end
Router# write
Router#

Red arrow.png Take a look at the routing table in the router by typing the following command?

Router# show ipv6 route


Question.jpg
Why is it necessary to redistribute this static route?




Mobile Node configuration

Before we launch mip6d, we need to check that we can join the Home Agent Address from the Mobile Node.

Red arrow.png Ping your Home Agent Address:

# ping6 2001:660:7301:<TP><X>8::1


Now, if the previous ping was successful, you can start the mip6 daemon configuration on the Mobile Node. The MN has to know the Home Agent, so you need to modify the configuration file provided to do so.

Red arrow.png Edit mn.mip6d.conf and replace <TP> and <X> by your numbers.

Red arrow.png Start mip6d with the appropriate configuration:

# mip6d -c ~user/TPs/TP_MIPv6/mn.mip6d.conf


Notes:

  • As on the Home Agent, logs will be displayed on the standard output.
  • As on the Home Agent, you can administer mip6d using telnet on port 7777 :
# telnet localhost 7777

Allowed commands are help, bc, date, fancy, hal, nonce, pl, prompt, quit, thread, verbose. Type help for more information.


Now that mobility should be configured, you have to check that everything is ok before moving.

Red arrow.png Try to ping the Correspondent Node:

# ping6 2001:660:7301:<TP>E1::2


Red arrow.png Ask your instructors for approval before continuing

Approved: Not approved:

Step 4: Mobility tests

Objectives:

  • Observe protocols and mechanisms set up by MIPv6.
  • Experiment use cases and features offered by the mobility.
  • Get familiar with tunneling practices


Description: During this step, you will use the platform you have configured during previous steps. This step shows how to use the mobility, which enhancements it permits compared to a classical IPv6 architecture. In this part of the practical, the students will be asked to inspect the internals of the MIPv6 protocols, the signalisation, and paths taken by packets from the Correspondent Node to the Mobile Node.


Let's move !

Now, you should have a functional MIPv6-ready system. We are going to check that.

Red arrow.png Start a Wireshark capture on the Mobile Node, you should keep it open all along this step

Be aware that in its listing view, Wireshark may display addresses from the internal header, e.g. the Home Address. Look at the detailed view to better understand the packet structure and source/destination addresses.

As in the step 2, we use ssh to test our connectivity.

Red arrow.png On the Mobile Node, open a ssh connection to the Correspondent Node:

# ssh user@2001:660:7301:<TP>E1::2

Red arrow.png On the Mobile Node, disconnect the eth0 interface from the switch and plug it into another bench.

TPMIPv6 mobility v1.png

Question.jpg
What behavioral difference do you see as compared to your previous ssh connection?




Question.jpg
How much time does it take for ssh to go back to a normal state?




Traffic tunneling between Mobile Node and Home Agent

We are going to study how data traffic transits between Mobile Node and Home Agent over a physical network.

In this section, your Mobile Node is plugged into another bench.

Red arrow.png Stop mip6d on your Mobile Node:

# ^C # in the terminal in which mip6d runs

Red arrow.png List network interfaces on your Mobile Node:

# ip link show

Red arrow.png Restart mip6d on your Mobile Node and list interfaces again:

# mip6d -c ~user/TPs/TP_MIPv6/mn.mip6d.conf
# ip link show


Question.jpg
Which differences do you see ?




Question.jpg
What is the type of the interface used by mip6d (the information on the second line) ?




Red arrow.png Additionally to your capture on eth0, start a capture with Wireshark on ip6tnl1 on your Mobile Node

Question.jpg
Which differences do you see between packets on ip6tnl1 and eth0 interfaces?




Red arrow.png Take a look at the IPv6 header on each capture.

Question.jpg
What are sources and destinations of data packets (not signalization) on each interface? Do you see any additional information in the IPv6 header?




Question.jpg
With the information you gathered, draw a diagram displaying the encapsulation of a packet between the Mobile Node and the Correspondent Node, specifying the addresses used.




Signalization between Mobile Node and Home Agent

Let's investigate signalization between the Mobile Node and the Home Agent to establish the tunnel.

Red arrow.png Start a capture with Wireshark on eth0 on your Mobile Node (if you have closed the previous one)

Red arrow.png Restart mip6d on your Mobile Node:

# ^C # in the terminal in which mip6d runs
# mip6d -c ~user/TPs/TP_MIPv6/mn.mip6d.conf
Question.jpg
Describe the signalization messages exchanged by the Home Agent and the Mobile Node.




Question.jpg
What are their contents ? Their aim ?




Red arrow.png Display the mip6d's association table on the Home Agent:

# telnet localhost 7777
mip6d> bc

Red arrow.png Display the mip6d's association table on the Mobile Node:

# telnet localhost 7777
mip6d> bul
Question.jpg
Does the information provided by those tables confirm your hypothesis ?




Question.jpg
Evaluate the average delay of the signalization




Bonus: Routing optimization

Objectives:

  • Detect non optimal paths in mobility scenarios.
  • Configure some advanced features of the mobility protocol.


Description: This step presents an optimization of MIPv6. It aims to make students understand the limits of the protocol, and the need to use enhancements, depending on whether or not the Correspondent Node is MIPv6-aware.

Route analysis

Figure out that your Mobile Node is linked to the Access Router (name it Y) of another bench. You try to connect to a Correspondent Node on the backbone via your mobile interface.

Stylo.png
What is the route taken by packets ?





Stylo.png
What would be an optimal route to the destination ?




Routing optimization fallback mechanism

A feature of the MIPv6 protocol permits to optimize the communication path between the Mobile Node and a MIPv6-aware Correspondent Node. First we are going to check how the various nodes behave if the optimization fails.

To enable optimization on the Mobile Node, we need to turn on the DoRouteOptimizationCN feature in Mobile Node mip6d configuration file.

Red arrow.png Stop mip6d on Mobile Node, change the DoRouteOptimizationMN parameter to enabled and restart mip6d:

# ^C # in the terminal in which mip6d runs
(edit mn.mip6d.conf)
# mip6d -c ~user/TPs/TP_MIPv6/mn.mip6d.conf

Red arrow.png Start a capture with Wireshark on eth0 on your Mobile Node (in case you have closed it)

Note: For the moment, the Correspondent Node isn't able to handle the optimization.

Red arrow.png Open a ssh session to the Correspondent Node:

# ssh user@2001:660:7301:<TP>E1::2
Question.jpg
What signalization do you see ?




Question.jpg
Finally, how is the data between the Mobile Node and the Correspondent Node transmitted ?




Routing optimization

Red arrow.png Wait that your instructors enable MIPv6 on the Correspondent Node.

Red arrow.png Look at the the association table on each machine (HA, MN, CN):

# telnet localhost 7777
mip6d> bc
mip6d> bul
Question.jpg
Using the content of those tables, how do the Mobile Node and the Correspondent Node handle the optimization ?




Red arrow.png Keep open your ssh session on your Mobile Node and move it to another network

Question.jpg
List signalization messages exchanged between HA, MN and CN, and draw a timing diagram of messages between each machine




Question.jpg
Evaluate the delay caused by signalization




Routing optimization Analysis

Red arrow.png Use appropriate wireshark captures on Home Agent and Mobile Node to discover the route taken by packets.

Question.jpg
Describe your captures




Question.jpg
What is the route taken by the communication ?




Question.jpg
Is it optimal ? Is it what you had predicted ?




Question.jpg
Does it work if the connection is started from the Correspondent Node ?




Question.jpg
Imagine a large scale deployment of this solution. What advantages and drawbacks do you see ?




Restoring your bench

Red arrow.png Disconnect Ethernet cable between PC and Cisco equipments (Switch and router) and the room network. Serial cables (light blue and ethernet cable on the motherboard must not be removed).

Red arrow.png On Cisco equipments (routers and switches) remove the configuration by typing:

Switch#write erase
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <return>
[OK]
Erase of nvram: complete
Switch#
3d23h: %SYS-7-NV_BLOCK_INIT: Initialized the geometry of nvram
Switch#reload

System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]: no
Proceed with reload? [confirm]<return>
...
Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]: yes


        --- System Configuration Dialog ---

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no
Switch>

Red arrow.png Reboot both PCs by typing:

# reboot

Broadcast message from root@pc-b27-21 (pts/3) (Mon Aug 11 17:44:28 2008): 

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
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